After a long and troubled process, in April 2015 the EU Regulation no. 2015/751 of the European Parliament and Council (Regulation on the Interchange Fees) was approved. The most striking feature of this regulation was the setting of maximum limits for the interchange fees applicable to debit card-based payment transactions (0.2 per cent of the value of the transaction) and credit card-based payment transactions (0.3 per cent of the value of the transaction).
Being an economy heavily dependent on its oil resources, Angola has been struggling to mitigate the effects of the current oil crisis and continue to be one of the most promising emerging economies in the world.
The European Commission has adopted the legal framework for international data transfers between the US and the European Union. The framework concerns the new data protection agreement ´privacy shield´, which concerns international transfers made to US entities. US entities can be certified from 1 August, and may import personal data without the need for exporting European entities to have to seek authorisation from the various European authorities on data protection.
Law 22/2003, regarding insolvency, has been a hallmark piece of legislation in terms of legal doctrine, precedence and legislation, both with regards to its application and its various modifications, which have adapted to Spanish economic realities. It aimed to systematise and modernise the existing insolvency laws, but the economic context has changed drastically.
The Portuguese Stock Exchange Commission has issued new regulations concerning equity investment and financing in relation to crowdfunding. These regulations are not in force yet as new regulations concerning its criminal regime are required for that purpose. These rules will contribute to the increased use of crowdfunding as a financial tool. Crowdfunding can be useful for the financing of new projects and ideas, which are still critical in the Portuguese market, especially for start–ups.
Europe is in the midst of economic, political and social turmoil. Brexit, the migrant crisis, the sovereign debt crisis and anti-European Union (EU) parties winning support in several countries bringing uncertainty. Despite the presence of political strategies capable of defending the European project, there is a business perspective that should be considered.